Comparison between C and C++ Programming

Comparison between C vs C++

C vs C++

Before starting the comparison first of all we know to understand What is C and C++ programming, So move forward :

C Programming

Developed by Dennis Ritchie in the year 1972. It is a procedural language, A procedural language specifies a series of steps for the program to solve the problem.
C is considered as a middle-level language because it supports the feature of both low-level and high-level languages. C language program is converted into assembly code, it supports pointer arithmetic (low-level), but it is machine independent (a feature of high-level).

C++ Programming

Developed by Bjarne Stroustrup starting in 1979 at Bell Labs. C++ runs on a variety of platforms, such as Windows, Mac OS, and the various versions of UNIX. C++ is an object-oriented programming language. It is an extension to C programming. C++ is a general purpose, case-sensitive, free-form programming language that supports object-oriented, procedural and generic programming.

Comparison between C and C++ Programming

As we know both C and C++ are programming languages and used for application development. C++ language is a subset of the C language. Major added features in C++ are Object-Oriented Programming, Exception Handling and rich C++ Library. C++ was first designed as an extension of C language. Thus, in addition to the procedural language features derived from C, C++ also supports object-oriented programming features like inheritance, polymorphism, abstraction, encapsulation, etc.

Basis of Distinction C Programming C++ Programming

Developed By

C was developed by Dennis Ritchie in 1972 C++ was developed by Bjarne Stroustrup in 1979.
Programming type It is a Procedural Oriented language. It is an Object-Oriented Programming language.
Approach C language follows Top Down programming approach C++ follow bottom-up programming approach.
File extension The file extension of a C program is .c The file extension of a c+ + program language is.cpp
Program division In C programming language, a big program code is divided into small pieces which is called functions. In C++ programming language, a big program code is divided into Objects and Classes.
Structure Structure in C not provide the feature of function declaration. Structure in C++ provides the feature of declaring a function as a member function of the structure.
Inline function It does not allow inline function. It supports inline function.
Standard I/O operations In C scan and printf are used for the standard input and output In C++ cin» and cout« are given for standard input and output operations.
Data Security In C language the data is not secured. Data is secure, so it can’t be accessed by external functions. (Using Encapsulation concept of OOPs)
Ease of Coding C is an older programming language that is described as Hands-on. In this language, you must tell the program to do everything. Moreover, this language will let you do almost anything. C++ is an extension language of C. It allows for the highly controlled object-oriented code.
Compatibility with other languages C is not compatible with another language. C++ is compatible with the other generic programming languages.
Pointer C supports only Pointers. C++ supports both pointers and references.
Variable In C, the variable should be defined at the beginning of the program. C++ allows you to declare variables anywhere in the function.
Point of Focus C focuses on the steps or procedures that are followed to solve a problem. C++ emphasizes the objects and not the steps or procedures. It has higher abstraction level.
Function Overloading C does not allow you to use function overloading. C++ allows you to use function overloading.
Data Types C language does not allows you to declare String or Boolean data types. It supports built-in and primitive data types. C++ supports String and Boolean data types.
Exception Handling C does not support Exception Handling. However, it can be performed using some workarounds. C++ supports Exception handling. Moreover, this operation can be performed using try and catch block.
Functions Does not allows functions with default arrangements Allow functions with default arrangements.
Namespace It is absent in C language. It is present in the C++ language.
Source Code Free-format program source code. Originally developed from the C programming language.
Relationship C is a subset of C++. It cannot run C++ code. C++ is a superset of C. C++ can run most of C code while C cannot run C++ code.
Driven by Function-driven language Object-driven language
Focus Focuses on method or process instead of data. Focuses on data instead of method or procedure.
Encapsulation Does not support encapsulation. As Data and functions are separate and free entities. Supports encapsulation. Data and functions are encapsulated together as an object.
Information hiding C does not support information hiding. In this language, data are free entities and can be changed outside code. Encapsulation hides the data. So that data structures and operators are used as per intention.
Memory management C provide malloc() and calloc() functions for dynamic memory allocation. C++ provides a new operator for this purpose.
Data Types Supports built-in data types. Supports built-in & user-defined data types.
Global Variables Allows Multiple Declaration of global variables. Multiple Declaration of global variables are not allowed.
Concept of Mapping The mapping between Data and Function is very complicated. The mapping between Data and Function can be easily established using “Classes and Objects.”
Inheritance Inheritance is not supported C Inheritance is possible in C++ language.
Default header file C used stdio.h header file. C++ uses iosteam.h as default header file.
Virtual function The concept of virtual Functions are present in C. The concept of virtual Function is not used in C++.
Keywords Contain 32 keywords. Contains 52 keywords.
Polymorphism In C. Polymorphism is not possible The concept of polymorphism is used in C++. Polymorphism is one of the most Important Features of OOPS.
GUI programming C language offers GTK tool for GUI programming C++ supports Qt tools for GUIprogramming

I hope this post helps you to understand all the comparisons between “C and C++ Programming”.
Keep Learning 🙂

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