Comparison between HBase Vs RDBMS

Comparison between HBase vs RDBMS


  • RDBMS and HBase, both are database management systems. RDBMS uses tables to represent data and their relationships. HBase is a column-oriented dbms and it works on top of Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS).
  • H BASE and other column-oriented DATABASE are often compared to more traditional and popular relational database or RDBMS.

Following are the important differences between RDBMS and HBase:




HBase has no full form.


RDBMS stands for Relational DataBase Management System
HBase does not need SQL


RDBMS requires SQL, Structured Query Language.
HBase has no fixed schema and less restrictive


RDBMS has a fixed schema and more restrictive
HBase is column oriented, each column is a contiguous unit of page.

Orientation/ Database type

RDBMS is row oriented, each row is a contiguous unit of page.
HBase is highly scalable.


RDBMS faces problems in scalablity.
HBase is dynamic in nature.


RDBMS is static in nature.
HBase data retrieval is fast

Data Retrieval

RDBMS data retrieval is slow.
HBase follows CAP(Consistency, Availability, Partition-tolerance) Rule.  



RDBMS follows ACID(Atomicity, Consistency, Isolation and Durability) Rule.
HBase handles structural, non-structural and semi-structural data.

Data structure

RDBMS handles structural data.
Sparse data handling is present.

Sparse Data Handling

Sparse data handling is not present.
HBase is good with the Sparse table.

Sparse Tables

RDBMS is not optimized for sparse tables.
HBase supports scale out. It means while we need memory processing power and more disk, we need to add new servers to the cluster rather than upgrading the present one.

Scale up/ Scale out

However, RDBMS supports scale up. That means while we need memory processing power and more disk, we need upgrade same server to a more powerful server, rather than adding new servers.
There is no built-in support


RDBMS has ACID support.
There is no transaction guaranty.

Transaction integrity

RDBMS mostly guarantees transaction integrity.
While it comes to referential integrity, there is no in-built support.

Referential integrity

RDBMS, supports referential integrity.
HBase supports JOINs.


RDBMS does not support JOINs.

Basis CRUD Operations in H Base:

  • If you want any CRUD Operations in H Base, H Base should be up and running otherwise the operations will not be successful.
  • Running the child instance, but not running the master instance is not same as the running master instance as creating the child instance.
  • The initial sets of basic operations are often referred to as CRUD which stands for Create, Read, Update and Delete.
  • These are provided by the HTable class.
  • Whenever we are creating a table name in  H Base, we must follow the below steps:
  • For creating a table, the syntax is
H Base (main):002:0>create ‘table name’, ’column family Name’



Hence, in this article, we saw the difference between HBase & RDBMS. Moreover, we have seen the complete comparison and the features of HBase and RDBMS. However, if any doubt occurs regarding HBase vs RDBMS, feel free to ask in the comment section.

I hope this post helps you to understand all the comparisons between “HBASE and RDBMS”.
Keep Learning 🙂

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